1850 AD to 1899 AD
|1850||1850 - Mary Bibb
(1820-1877) and her husband Henry
Bibb (1815-1854) flee from the U.S.A.
to Canada. In 2002 they are declared National Historic Persons.
Source: Historic Sites and Monuments Board. Online
accessed June 2012.
1850 - Women in Canada West (Ontario) obtain the right to vote for school trustees if they own property, regardless of marital status. Source: Women in History; a timeline by Kirsten Smith, Postmedia News March 9, 2011. : Source: History of Women's Rights, Nellie McClung Foundation online accessed April 2013
1850 - The essential
structure of a capitalist marke i.e. employers hire workers on a
short term basis, existed in Canada. Empolyers needed a surplus pool
of labour so they used women, as well as immigrants, children &
displaced land workers to fill positions.
1851 - Mary Ann Shadd
forms the Anti-Slavery Society in
1851 - It is a criminal offense for a woman to obtain an abortion in Nova Scotia.
1851 - The Nova Scotia Franchise Act specifically prohibits women from having the right to vote in elections
1851 - Harriet Tubman (1820?-1913), a conductor on the famous escape route for slaves to Canada called the Underground Railroad came north to St. Catherines, Ontario. This courageous woman made 19 trips back to the South, to help people who had been enslaved to escape to freedom. Source : Cool Chronology at www.coolwomen.org (accessed July 2005)
January 1851- Mary Bibb (1820-1877) co-published the newspaper The Fugitive Voice beginning in 1851. Mary is credited with being the 1st Black woman journalist in Canada. Later her sister-in-law Mary Shadd Cary would become the 1st Black woman publisher of a newspaper. In 2002 she and her husband were declared National Historic Persons. Sources: Section15.ca ; Merna Forster 100 more Canadian Heroines; Famous and Forgotten Faces (Toronto; Dundurn Press, 2011.
April 6, 1851 -
The Canadian Postal Service transfers from British control. The
uniform postal rate is 3 pence. It will not be until 1960 until a
named famous Canadian woman appears on a Canadian stamp.
publishes her book Roughing It In The Bush.
1852 - Born Elizabeth McDougall Young (1852- 945) pioneer of the Canadian North West.
October 11,1852 - Born Mary Isabella Macleod (1852-1933) pioneer of western Canada.
March 24, 1853 - The Provincial
Freeman (newspaper) is founded by
Mary Ann Shadd
(1823-1893) and her brother Isaac Shadd
Historica; Black History; Timeline http://blackhistorycanada.ca/timeline.php?id=1800 (Accessed March 2007)
June 17, 1853 - Jane Sym (1825-1890) marries Alexander Mackenzie (1822-1892), 2nd Prime Minister of Canada.
1854 - a train carrying Norwegian Immigrants arrives in
(Windsor, Ontario). The immigrants have Cholera. Margaret Arnold McEwan
(1812-1883) helps out at danger
to her own health. The railway presents her with a gold watch for
Source: “The Yellow Brick Question” by Elaine Weeks. Times Magazine. Online (Accessed November 2012)
1854 - Abigail Becker
(1830-1905) is paramount in saving
lives of the master and six men of
the crew of the schooner Conductor, sunk off Long Point Island,
Ontario. Her storey is now largely forgotten.
January 1, 1855 - Ottawa in incorporated as
1855 - Emmaline Shadd, sister to Mary Ann Shadd (1823-1893), a Black student, received top honours, 1st prize and a 1st class teaching certificate from the Toronto Normal School (teacher's college). Source: Black History Month http://cyberus.ca/~acdas/bhm1a.html (accessed May 2005)
October 20, 1855 - Toronto, Upper Canada (Ontario) becomes the new capital city of Canada.
1855 - Born Lovisa McDougal (1855-1943) pioneer of Canadian North West.
1855 - Born Sara Anne McLagan (1855-1924) the 1st Canadian woman newspaper editor.
1855 - Born Marion Oliver (1855-1913) one of the 1st Canadian medical missionaries in India.
January 9, 1855 - Born Katherine Bawlf (1855-1918) social activist
February 22, 1855 - Born Grace Annie Lockhart (1855-1916) the 1st woman to receive a university degree in Canada.
June 1, 1855 - Born Helga Steinvor Baldvinsdotir (1855- 1941) penname 'Undine', author & poet.
September 15, 1855 - Born Mary Ann Casey Abbott (1855-1931) wife of 1st licensed physician in Canada.
December 20, 1855 - Born Mary Ann Doak (1855-1948) pioneer of Canadian North West.
16, 1856 -
the 1st discovery of gold in British Columbia.
All gold is declared property of the crown.
1856 - Born Emma Sophia Baker (1856-1943) psychologist
1856 - Born Kate Yeigh (1856-1906) journalist & author.
May 20, 1856 - Born Eliza Ritchie, (1856-1935) probably the first Canadian woman to receive her doctor of letters.
September 16, 1856 - Born Kate Reed (1856-1928) 1st Canadian woman who worked as a professional decorator.
December 19, 1856 - Born Elizabeth Fulton Parker (1856-1944) social activist
Victoria (1819-1901) chooses Ottawa as capitol city of Canada.
1857 - The British Matrimonial Causes Act, adopted in the provinces of Canada East and Canada West, makes divorce possible for women on the grounds of adultery. Source: History of Women's Rights, Nellie McClung Foundation online accessed April 2013
1857 - Dr. James Miranda Stuart Barry (1795-1865) is posted to Canada where (s)he becomes well respected for his fight to provide cleaner hospital facilities and better food for the working soldiers. It would not be until death, when the body was being prepared for burial that it would be discovered that the renowned doctor was indeed a woman! It must have cause a stir in the Victorian society to have had the 1st “woman” doctor in the British Army!!!
June 10 1857 - Canada legally declared the decimal (dollar) system of currency to be effective as of December 31, 1857 at midnight.
1857 - Born Ida Lynd (1857-1943) an indomitable early Canadian woman doctor.
1857 - Born Georgea Powell (1857-1925) headed the 1st group of nurses to the Yukon in 1898.
1857 - Born Mary Ella Dignam (1857-1938) feminist, artist, founder of the Women's Art Association of Canada.
February 27, 1857 - Born Adelaide Hoodless (1857-1910) social activist & founder of the International Women's Institutes & Victoria Order of Nurses.
April 26, 1857 - Born Agnes Elizabeth Wetherald (1857-1940) freelance journalist.
July 27, 1857- Born Dr. Augusta Stowe-Gullen (1957- 1943) Mount Pleasant, Canada West 1st woman to graduate in medicine from a Canadian university.
November 1, 1857 - Born Julia Jane Murray Clark (1857-1919) pioneering social activist for child welfare.
December 1857 - Born Jane Flett McKay (1857-1947) pioneer of the Canadian North West.
December 10, 1858 - Born Margaret Ridley Charlton (1858-1931) educated as a librarian, she became an author of books for children.
1857 - Died Charlotte Small (1786-1857) pioneer.
December 28, 1857 - Died Isabel Macdonald (? -1857) wife of Sir J. A. Macdonald (1815-1891), 1st Prime minister of Canada.
January 27, 1858 -
It is officially announced that Queen Victoria
has chosen Ottawa as the capital city of Canada. (at
that time Canada consisted of Upper and Lower Canada now the
provinces of Ontario and Quebec.)
April 7, 1858 - Thomas D'Arcy McGee (1825-1868), one of the Fathers of Confederation, is assassinated.
April 26, 1858 - The 1st Black Californians arrive by ship in Victoria, British Columbia on the invitation of James Douglas (1803-1877), the governor of British Columbia. By summer's end, more than 800 Black settlers had arrived. While government legislation suggested that equality prevailed, in truth, convention and little enforcement allowed acceptance to give way to segregation. Source: Historica; Black History - Timeline blackhistorycanada.ca/timeline.php?id=1800
1858 - the 1st child care centres are organized in Quebec by the Grey Nuns.
1858 - Female teachers with little experience teaching the lower grades at school earn $170.00 a year in Toronto while male teachers earn $520.00 per year. Source: Janet Ray, Towards Women’s Rights, Toronto, Grolier Ltd, 1981.
December 20, 1858 - The maple leaf is 1st used as a symbol of Canada.
1858 - Born Mary Ellen Birties (1858-1943) one of the 1st graduates of the nurse training program at the Winnipeg General Hospital, established in 1887 Member of the Order of the British Empire (OBE).
1858 - Born Friselda Caisse (1858-1948) local social activist in Ontario.
1858 - Born Mary Elizabeth Crowley (1858-1869) 1st female in Canada to have a monument erected in her honor
1858 - Born Gertrude E. Cutts (1858-1941) well known artist of her era.
1858 - Born Elizabeth Ferguson McKellop (1858-1938) pioneer of Canadian North West.
January 1, 1858 - Born Jemima Bray (1858-1926), pioneer in Canadian North West.
April 16, 1858 - Born Lily Dougall (1868-1923) novelist & religious writer.
July 16, 1858 - Born Partial Edith Fanny Kirk (1858-1953) water colour landscape artist.
September 17, 1858 - Born Maria-Clara Dorimène Roy-Desjardins (1856-1932) businesswoman and banker of Desjardins.
October 4, 1858 - Born Ellen Mary Knox (1858-1924) founding principal of Havergal Ladies College, Toronto, Ontario.
The legislature of the province of
Canada passes an Act to Secure to Married Women Certain Rights of
Property grants married women with certain property rights in
Women may own property but they require the agreement of their husband
to sell property.
Source: History of Women's Rights, Nellie
McClung Foundation online accessed April 2013
1859 - Born Annie Mackenzie Cleland (1859-1919) indomitable early Canadian woman doctor
1859 - Born Susie Frances Harrison (1858-1935) used the pen name 'Seranus' and wrote novels & poetry.
1859 - Born Jean Newton McIlwraith (1959-1938) author.
January 18, 1859 - Born Elizabeth Smith-Shortt. (1859-1949) pioneer women doctor.
March 31, 1859 - Born Alice Ravenhill (1859-1954) social activist & author.
April 11, 1859 - Born Agnes Dennis (1859-1949) social activist.
September 2, 1859 - Born Georgina Alexandrina Newhall (1859-1932) journalist & poet.
September 8, 1859 - Born Marion Elizabeth Crerar (1859-1919) social activist, volunteer & philanthropist.
June 14, 1859 - Died Sophia Sims Dalton(1785?- 1859) the 1st woman to run a newspaper, The Patriot, in Toronto, Ontario.
|1860||February 29, 1860 -
Mrs. Kwong Lee
arrives in Victoria, British
Columbia, the 1st Chinese woman to come to Canada.
Source: Jin Guo: Voices of Chinese Canadian Women by
The Chinese Canadian National Council, Toronto : Toronto Women's
Press, 1992 pg. 18.
December 1860 - Harriet Tubman (1820?-1913) leader her last group of escaping slaves from Maryland, U.S.A. to safety in Canada. Source: 100 Canadian Heroines : Famous and forgotten faces by Merna Forester. Toronto : Dundurn Press, 2004. pg 267.
1860 - Born Helena Jane Coleman (1880-1953) author & poet.
1860 - Born Ada May Courtice (1860-1923) founder of the Home & School Movement.
1860 - Born Mary Newton (1860- ) 1st lay nurse in Edmonton, Alberta.
1860 - Born Katherine Elizabeth Wallis (1860-1957) a sculptor who was decorated by Britain and France for her nursing efforts in World War l.
February 6, 1860 - Born Henriette Saint-Jacques (1860-1946) journalist & author of several books.
April 28, 1860 - Born Helena Jane Coleman (1860-1953) journalist & novelist.
June 7, 1860 - Born Helen Elizabeth Reynolds Ryan (1860-1947) 1st woman doctor in Northern Ontario.
June 11, 1869 - Born Ada Borradaile Chipman (1860?-1913) organized Woman's Art Association for women in 1907.
June 18, 1860 - Born Laura Muntz Lyall (1860-1930) artist.
July 14, 1860 - Born Alice Jane Jamieson (1860-1949) 1st woman in the British Empire appointed as judge. in juvenile court.
August 29, 1860 - Born Margaret Lucas (1860-1922, pioneer in North West Canada.
December 17, 1860 - Born Lady Grace Julia Parker Drummond (1860-1942) a social activist.
1860 - Died Margaret McLaughlin (1775? - 1860) pioneer of the Canadian North West.
1860 - Died Ann Cuthbert Fleming ( ? - 1860) teacher, poet & author.
1860 - Died Ann Harvey (1811-1860) heroine who risked her life to save people from floundering ships off Newfoundland
February 5, 1860 - Died Harriet Powel (1815?- 860) escaped slave who used the underground railroad.
March 17, 1860 - Died Anna Brownell Jameson, (1794-1860) author.
May 1860 - Died Marie-Henriette LeJeune Ross 'Granny Ross' (1762-1860) pioneer settler, scientist & medical practitioner.
The population of Canada is 1,396,000.
May 25,1861 - Sarah Emma Evelyn Edmonds (1841-1898) joins the Union Army to serve as Frank Thompson, nurse and Union spy in the American Civil War.
September 19, 1861 - The Wesleyan Ladies College is opened on King St. in Hamilton, Ontario in the former Anglo-American Hotel. It is both a day and boarding school and offers courses in literature, music, art and modern languages.
1861 - Born Marion Coutts Carson (1861-1950) social activist in Alberta.
1861 - Born Marie Rose Delorme-Smith (1861-1960) Métis pioneer
1861 - Born Harriett Armine Gosling (1861-1942) social activist, community volunteer & suffragette.
1861 - Born Eliza Parks Hegan (1861-1917) one of 1st nurses trained in New Brunswick.
1861 - Born Cécile Laberge (1861-1948) journalist & one of the founders of the Canadian Women's Press Club. 1904.
1861 - Born Annie Louisa Prat (1861- 1960) Nova Scotia artist.
1861 - Born Georgina Fane Pope (1862-1938) The Florence Nightingale of Prince Edward Island and 1st Matron of the Canadian Army Medical Corp.
1861 - Born Sadie O. Prince (1861-1905) poet.
1861 - Born Mary Townsend Schaffer (1861-1939) historian & author.
January 14, 1861 - Born Margaret Blair Gordon (1861-1928) indomitable early Canadian woman doctor.
March 10, 1861 - Born Pauline Johnson, (1861-1913) Canada's 1st renowned native poet.
April 5, 1861 - Born Minna Keen (1861-1943) pioneer photographer.
April 13, 1861 - Born Margaret Marshall Saunders (1861-1947) author of the 1st Canadian book to sell a million copies.
April 18, 1861 - Born Isabella 'Belle' (1861-1936) political life & doyenne of Calgary, Alberta
June 12, 1861 - Born Mabel Phoebe Peters (1861-1914) suffragist & social activist in education.
September 18, 1861 - Born E. Cora Hind, (1861-1942) 1st woman journalist in the Canadian west & women's rights activist.
October 4, 1861 - Born Mary Townsend Schaffer Warren (1861-1939) 19th century explorer in Canadian North West.
October 11, 1861 - Born Mary Ellen Smith (1861-1933) 1st woman appointed Cabinet Minister in the British Empire.
October 23, 1861 - Born Margaret Mackellar (1861-1941) an indomitable early lady doctor.
December 5, 1861 - Born Josephine Herélle-Henriette Marchand-Dandurand (1861-1925) 1st woman to edit a French language periodical in Canada.
Allison University in Sackville, New Brunswick, accepts the
1st woman student at a
1862 - Catherine Schubert (1835-1918) and her husband join a group of prospectors heading to the Caribou Gold fields. Catherine was 4 months pregnant when she and her husband began their overland trek across the prairies and the Rocky Mountains with their other 3 children ages 5,3, & 1. Source: Archives of British Columbia. Catherine O'Hare Schubert http://www.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/exhibits/timemach/galler10/frames/index.htm (accessed May 20, 2005)
1862 - Born Eva Jeannette Fisher (1862- ?) an indomitable early woman doctor
1862 - Born - Constance Easton Hamilton (1862-1945) 1st woman in Canada elected to serve in a large metropolitan area.
1862 - Born Lily Adams Beck (1862?-1931) author.
1862 - Born Josephine Dandurand (1862-1925) journalist who used the penname 'Josette'.
1862 - Born Mary Agnes Fitzgibbon (1862-1933) journalist who used the penname 'Lally Bernard'.
1862 - Born Sara Jeanette Duncan ( 1862-1922) journalist & author of some 20 books.
1862 - Born Rose de Lima Lefebre (1862-1919) Sister Vincent, pioneer of Canadian North West.
1862 - Born Christine Pilon (1862-1959) pioneer of the North West rebellion in Manitoba.
January 4, 1862 - Born Janet Chisholm Lee (1862-1940) worked with Adelaide Hoodless to establish Women's Institutes.
January 7, 1862 - Born Helen MacMurchy (1862-1953) the 1st woman doctor to intern at Toronto General Hospital
January 14, 1862 - Born Carrie Derick, (1862-1941) 1st woman in Canada to become a full professor.
June 18, 1862 - Born Minnie Julia Beatrice Campbell (1862-1952) social activist & prominent volunteer.
June 27, 1862 - Born May Irwin (1862-1938.) stage performer & star of a pioneering one minute movie by Thomas Edison.
November 4, 1862 - Born Jean Blewett (1862-1934) journalist, novelist & poet.
May 9, 1862 - Died Mary (Maria) Elizabeth Alexowina Muir (1785-1862) heroine of the war of 1812.
August 14, 1862 - Susanne Connolly (La Sauvagess of Suzanne Pas de Nom) 1788-1862) pioneer & only woman who's legal marriage claim rose to the supreme court.
1863 - Born Dr. Jennie Wildman (1863-1953) established the Department of Gynecology at the Women’s College Hospital
1863 - Born Bertha Carr-Harris (1863-1949) author.
1863 - Born Harriet Oliver (1863-1943) pioneer of western Canada & political wife.
February 26, 1863 - Born Robertine Barry (1863-1910) pioneer feminist lecturer & writer, considered the 1st woman journalist in French Canada.
July 23, 1863 - Born Teresa Mary Gowanlock, (1863-1899) pioneer settler of Canadian North West.
October 11, 1863 - Born Mary Ellen Smith (1863-1933.) 1st woman elected to British Columbia Legislature & 1st woman appointed to a Cabinet in the British Empire.
December 21, 1863 - Born Rebecca 'Rivka' Fox Landsberg (1863-1917) social activist for Canadian immigrant Jewish families.
1863 - Died Rhoda Ann Page (1826-1863) author.
March 13, 1863 - Died Helen Mar Johnson (1834-1863) poet (Death sometimes recorded as 1862)
Yorkville Archery Cub, Toronto, is established as the 1st in Canada.
1864 - John Torrance (1786-1870) a Montreal businessman, establishes the Elizabeth Torrance Gold Medal, in memory of his wife Elizabeth (Fisher) Torrance (1794-1862), at McGill University, Montreal, and is presented to the student with the highest standing throughout BCL degree. Source: McGill University McGill.ca accessed June 2013.
October 14, 1864 - Governor General Lord Monck hosts a ball in the Parliament Buildings in Quebec providing entertainment for those who were attending the Quebec Conference which led to the Canadian Confederation in 1867. Source: Anne McDonald, Mercy Coles of PEI in Canada’s History , August –September 2014.
1864 - Born Florence Carlyle (1864-1923) outstanding portrait artist.
1864 - Born Lavina Clark (1864-1905) Methodist missionary to Canadian North West.
1864 - Born Kathleen “Kit” Coleman, (1864-1915) the world’s 1st woman war correspondent (during the Spanish American War.)
1864 - Born Mary Alexander Bell Eastlake (1864-1951) artist
1864 - Born Rosalind Goforth (1864-1942) author.
1864 - Born Lydia Elizabeth 'Eliza or Lyda' Hall (1864-1916) evangelist with sister, she was known as a gifted preacher.
1864 - Born Mary Alfretta "Retta" Gifford Kilborn (1864-1942) Methodist medical missionary in China.
1864 - Born Sara Mary Lynch-Stanton (1864-1953) western Canadian pioneer & artist.
January 7, 1864 - Born Helen Gregory McGill, (1864-1947) 1st woman to be appointed a judge of juvenile court in her region.
February 17, 1864 - Born Jane Elizabeth MacDonald (1864-1922) author & poet.
July 14, 1864 - Born Amanda Matilda Nilsson (1864-1940) pioneer in Canadian North West
July 29 1864 - Born Annie Gardner Brown (1864-1921) social activist & volunteer.
October 2, 1864 - Born Margaret Jane "Nellie Bryant (1864/5?-1947) early woman photographer, possible the 1st to use dry places in a camera.
October 11, 1864 - Born Annie Ella Higbee (1864 -1965) indomitable early Canadian woman doctor
April 5, 1864 - Died Marie Rosalie Cadron (1794-1864) Sister Marie De La Nativité, pioneer social worker.
|1865||April 1, 1865 -
'Baie du Ha! Ha!' Quebec, the 1st Canadian April Fool's Day on
record celebrated by British troops and militia at Fort Poisson
1865 - American abolitionist and writer Benjamin Drew, conducted research in Canada in the 1850s and interviewed many former slaves about the Black refugee experience. In 1865 he published an interview with an elderly woman named Sophia Pooley who claimed to have been one of Joseph Brant's slaves and the "1st Black girl in Upper Canada." Source: Historica: Black History; Timeline http://blackhistorycanada.ca/timeline.php?id=1800 (Accessed March 2007)
Aletta Elise Marty
(1865-1929) Canada's 1st woman inspector of schools & author.
January 6, 1866 - Born Elizabeth Matheson (1866-1958) an early doctor in Manitoba who practiced for 50 years.
January 8, 1866 - Born Elizabeth Annie McGillivray Knowles (1866-1928) nature study artist.
February 3, 1866 - Born Alice Amelia Chown (1866-1949) suffragist & author.
February 24, 1866 - Born Martha Louise Black (1866-1957), adventurer & politician, considered to be the First Lady of the Yukon.
April 3, 1866 - Born Georgina Ann Stirling (1866-1935) opera singer.
April 7, 1866 - Born Harriet Irene Dunlop Prenter (1866-????) one of 1st women to run in a Canadian federal election
May 31, 1866 - Born Sophia Margaretta Hensley (1866-1946) author, lecturer & social activist who wrote under male pen names.
August 29, 1866 - Born Agnes Maria Turnbull (1866-1907) Presbyterian medical missionary in India awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind medal for services.
January 13, 1866 - Died Mary Love (1806-1866) 1st Canadian born artist to have works lithographed (drawn to stone for printing and reproduction.)
July 9, 1866 - Died Susan Sibbald (1783-1866) pioneer & diarist.
August 1, 1866 - Died Marie Louise Dorval (1797-1866) a nun & Mother Superior.
February 16,1867 - Sir John A. Macdonald (1815- 1891)
marries Susan Agnes Bernard, (1836-1920)
sister of his personal secretary.
July 1, 1867 - Confederation of Canadian Provinces.
1867 - Laws concerning prostitution are consolidated into the Criminal Code of Canada
1867 - Dr. Emily Stowe (1831-1903) graduates in medicine from New York State University, but is not legally allowed to practice in Canada until 1880. Source: History of Women's Rights, Nellie McClung Foundation online accessed April 2013
1867 - Susannah Oland (1798-1886) 1st brews a batch of brown October Ale in her backyard in Nova Scotia and a family brewery that would become known for Moose Head Beer was born.
1867 - Born Helena Walker (1867-1963) 1st woman elected as alderman in Regina Saskatchewan.
1867 - Born Flora Macdonald Denison (1867-1921) journalist & suffragist & successful Toronto businesswoman.
1867 - Born Edith Eaton (1867-1914) author.
April 4, 1867 - Born Victoria Cartier (1867-1955) pianist, organist & teacher.
October 19, 1867 - Born Marie Gerin-Lajoie (1867-1945) champion of women's rights in Quebec.
December 4, 1867 - Born Sibella Annie Barrington (1867-1929) pioneer nurse in Canada's Maritimes.
December 28, 1867 - Born Joanna E. Wood (1867- 1927) author
November 28, 1867 - Died Julia Catherine Hart (1796-1867) author who wrote the 1st work of fiction by a native born Canadian to be published in Canada.
and Catherine Parr Traill,
in order to earn money to
live on by publishing their book: Canadian Wild Flowers.
1868 - The Hebrew Ladies' Sick and benevolent Society (later known as the Montefiore Hebrew Benevolent Society) is founded in Toronto, Ontario. Source. Jewish Women's Archives: Jewish Women, a comprehensive historical Encyclopedia. online (accessed July 2011)
1868 - Born Annie Mackinnon Fitch (1868-1940) noted mathematician.
1868 - Born Margaret Alexandra Shea (1863-1949) 1st woman to be a professional nurse in Newfoundland.
1868 - Born Minnie Sophia Prat (1868-1901) book binder
January 9, 1868 - Born Irene Parleby (1868-1965) one of the "Famous Five" who worked on the Persons Case 1929.
January 16, 1868 - Born Octavia Grace England (1868- ) 1st woman to be valedictorian at McGill University.
February 12, 1868 - Born Jessie Georgina Sime (1868-1958) author
February 23, 1868 - Born Mary Sollace Saxe (1868-1942) librarian Westmont Public Library, author & playwright.
March 14, 1868 - Born Emily Murphy (1868-1933.) the 1st woman appointed magistrate (judge of a lower court) in the British Empire.
August 8, 1868 - Born Julia Willmothe Henshaw (1868-1937) botanist, journalist & novelist.
August 10, 1868 - Born Alice Helena Berry (1868-1919) pioneer businesswoman of Prince Edward Island.
September 22, 1868 - Born Louise McKinney (1868-1931) one of the two 1st women elected to a provincial legislature & member of the 'Famous 5' who worked on the Persons Case.
November 4, 1868 - Born Dorothy Sproule (1868-1963) poet.
November 16, 1868 - Born Almanda Walker-Marchand (1868-1949) founder Federation des femmes-française.
March 29, 1868 - Died Henrietta Feller (1800-1868) founder of the protestant mission at Grande-Ligne, Quebec.
|1869||1869 - Manitoba joins the Dominion of
1869 - A clause in Section 6 of the Act for Gradual Enfranchisement of Indians states that " any Indian woman marrying other than an Indian shall cease to be an Indian, as will be the children of such marriage."
1869 - Abortion is made illegal, under threat of life imprisonment. Dissemination of information about birth control is also illegal. Source : A History of Abortion in Canada http://www.prochoiceactionnetwork-canada.org/history.html (accessed July 30, 2003)
1869 - An Ontario Law requires all doctors wishing to practice medicine in the province to obtain a license from the Council of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. Any doctor who had graduated in the United States had to attend a session of lectures at an Ontario medical school. Since women were not accepted at any Ontario medical schools, Doctors like Emily Stowe (1831-1903) simply practiced without a license. Source: Janet Ray, Towards Women’s Rights, Toronto, Grolier Ltd, 1981.
1869 - Born Julia Wilmotte Henshaw (1869-1937) botanist, novelist & WW l Veteran.
March 18, 1869 - Born Maud Abbott (1869-1940) internationally acclaimed medical doctor who specialized in the study of heart disease.
April 8, 1869 - Born Sara "Sadie" Ann Stringer (1869-1955) Anglican Church Missionary to the Canadian North West
May 2, 1869 - Born Julia Arthur (1869-1950) international stage actor & movie star.
1869 - Died Mary Elizabeth Crowley (1858-1869) 1st female in Canada to have a monument erected in her honor
The 1st woman is employed in the federal
public service as deputy maton in Kingston Penitentiary.
1870 - Female teachers in Toronto earn $220.00 to $400.00 per year depending on experience while male teachers earn $500.00 to $700.00 per year. Source: Janet Ray, Towards Women’s Rights, Toronto, Grolier Ltd, 1981.
1870 - Agnes Blizzard establishes the 1st Canadian Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) in Saint John, New Brunswick. Source: History of the YWCA http://www.ywcacanada.ca/
1870 - Frances Anne Hopkins shows 16 works at the Art Association of Montreal. It is the largest showing from any one woman to this date. Source: Important Moments in Canadian Art History compiled by Dr. Robert J. Belton, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Creative Projects http://ubc.ca/okanagan/creative/links/timeline (accessed February 2006)
July 5, 1870 - Annie Emma Affleck (1845-1913) marries future Prime Minister John Sparrow David Thompson (1845-1894) at the Bishop's Palace, Portland Maine, U.S.A. Sources: “Obituary”, The Toronto Evening Telegram, April 11, 1913. ; “Annie Emma Affleck”, Dictionary of Canadian Biography 1911-1920, vol. XIV Online Accessed April 2013.
1870 - The 1st public monument erected to a Canadian woman is dedicated in Pugwash, Nova Scotia by the provincial legislature. The Crowley Memorial commemorates the heroic death of Mary Elizabeth Crowley (1858-1869) who died October 15,1869, aged 12 years after having rescued her younger brother and sister from the flames of her parent's home.
1870 - Born Susan Mellett Bowen (1870-1962) Anglican Church missionary to the Canadian North West.
1870 - Born Louise Duffield Cummings (1870-1947) renowned mathematician.
1870 - Born Evelyn Durand (1870-1900) poet.
1870 - Born Margaret "Miggsy" Graham (1870-1924) journalist one of the founders of the Canadian Women's Press Club (CWPC)
1870 - Born Lillian Margaret Hendrie, (1870-1952) teacher & author.
1870 - Born Mina Hubbard (1870-1956) Labrador adventurer & explorer.
1870 - Born Mabel Annesley Johnston (1870-1945) author
1870 - Born Rose-Anna Vachon (1870?- 1948) baker & businesswoman
February 4, 1870 - Born Janet Wishart Carter (1870-1953) renowned educator in Ontario.
March 18, 1870 - Born Agnes Baxter (1870-1917) pioneer woman mathematician.
March 29, 1870 - Born Marie--Louise-Joséphine-Ester-Eliza Marmette (1870- 1928) pioneer journalist
June 25, 1970 - Born Jeannie Isabelle Dow (1870-1927) Presbyterian medical missionary in China.
1871 - More than 50% of the light manufacturing workforce
I.E. shoemaking, printing, & tobacco are women and children.
July 20, 1871 - British Columbia joins Confederation.
1871 - The Census of Canada states that Montreal's workforce is 42% women and children and 34% in Toronto.
1871 - The Ontario School Act, very progressive for its time, provides free school for both boys and girls. Source: The Timechart history of Canada by Meredith Macardle (2004)
1871 - The Manitoba Act Respecting Married Women allows women to keep ownership of property, but any wages made must go to her spouse unless he is judged cruel or insane. Source: History of Women's Rights, Nellie McClung Foundation online accessed April 2013
May 10, 1871 - the Montreal Ladies
Educational Association is founded with
Anne Molson as
President. They had honorary male members and a male treasurer. Their
main goal was to have women accepted as students at McGill College.
The Married Women’s Property Act of
Ontario gives a married woman the right to her own wage
earnings free from her husband’s control.
Source: History of Women's Rights, Nellie McClung Foundation
online accessed April 2013
1872 - Women with dependant children who have no husband may have homestead land in accordance with the Public Lands of the Dominion Statutes.
1872 - The 1st women's prison (girls over 16 years) in Canada is opened in Toronto, Ontario. This Andrew Mercer Reformatory
will be closed in 1969 after controversial allegations of torture, beatings and experimental drugs and medical procedures were investigated.
1872- Born Kathleen Barrett Blanchard (1872-1954) music historian.
1872 - Born Pearle Smith Chute (1872-????) 1st woman doctor to intern in Canada & became a medical Missionary to India.
1872 - Born Minerva Ellen Reid (1872-1957) medical doctor, Chief of Surgery Women's College Hospital, Toronto
January 6, 1872 - Born Emilie Tremblay (1872-1949) pioneer of the Yukon & 1st white woman to climb the Chilkoot trail in 1894.
March 16, 1872 - Born Sara Corning (1872-1969) a nurse & heroine who save 5000 Armenian children in 1922.
1872 - Died Charlotte deGrassi (1823-1872) heroine of the 1937 rebellion in Upper Canada
July 15,1872 - Died Mary Eliza Herbert (1832-1872) 1st woman editor & publisher of a magazine in Nova Scotia.
October 24, 1872 - Died Frances Stewart (1794-1872) pioneer diarist & letter writer.
|1873||1873 - Northwest Mounted Police are formed.
1873 - Prince Edward Island enters Confederation.
1873 – The British Columbia provincial government passes legislation granting all the women of British Columbia the right to vote in municipal elections but they were still not allowed to run for election.
1873 - YWCA = Young Woman's Christian Association is established in Toronto. Source: History of the YWCA http://www.ywcacanada.ca/
April 30, 1873 - Tookoolito (1838-1876) is rescued as one of 19 survivors of 6 1/2 months on a ice flow in the Canadian arctic ( the survivors had been separated from their ship the Polaris)
1873 - Born Mary Riter Hamilton (1873-1954) artist of World War l European battlefields.
1873 - Born Mary Helen Irwin Rutnam (1873-1962) medical missionary in Ceylon who established the Women's Institute in Ceylon.
1873 - Born Mary Barrett Speechly (1873-1968) social activist & member Women's Institutes
May 6, 1873 - Born Henrietta Tuzo Wilson (1873-1955) The 1st Canadian born woman mountaineer.
May 20,1873 - Born Henrietta Hancock Britton (1873-1963) painter & teacher.
June 13, 1873 - Born Jean Adair (1873-1953) movie actor.
August 27, 1873 - Born Maud Allan (1873-1956) pioneer of modern dance.
October 20, 1873- Born Nellie McClung (1873-1851) author & social activist.
1873 - Died Matilda Davis (1820-1873) pioneer educator.
Mennonites (Anabaptists) start to arrive in Manitoba from various
1874 - YWCA = Young Women's Christian Association is established in Montreal. Source: History of the YWCA http://www.ywcacanada.ca/
July 26, 1874 - Alexander Graham Bell discloses the invention of the telephone to his family in Brantford, Ontario.
1874 - The Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is founded in Owen Sound, Ontario. Source: History of Women's Rights, Nellie McClung Foundation online accessed April 2013
1874 - The Ontario Ladies College is opened in Whitby, Ontario.
1874 - The 1st nurses training school opens at the General and Marine Hospital in St. Catherines, Ontario.
1874 - Jane Flett McKay (1857-1947), marries Dr. William Morrison Mckay who is considered Alberta's 1st resident doctor and she becomes a medical assistant to her husband. Source: Kay Saunderson, 200 Remarkable Alberta Women, (Famous Five Foundation, 1999)
1874 - Born Elizabeth Rebecca Laird (1874-1969) a physics teacher & college administrator who after she retired she became a researcher.
1874 - Born Clara Brett Martin (1874-1923) the 1st woman admitted to the profession of law in the British Empire.
August 10, 1874 - Born Arabelle "Belle" Frances Patchen Northwestern pioneer
November 3,1874 - Born Florence Livesay (1874-1953) journalist & poet.
December 16, 1874 - Born Nellie Langford Rowell (1874-1968) social activist & philanthropist.
October 31, 1874 - Died Albine Gadbois (1830-1874) Sister Marie d'Bonsecoues, founder & director of the Institution des sourdes-muettes de Montreal.
December 6, 1874 - Died Isabella Binney Cogswell (1819-1874) humanitarian & philanthropist
- The Supreme Court of Canada is established.
May 25, 1875 - Grace Annie Lockhart (1855-1916) graduates from Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, becoming the 1st woman in the British Empire to earn a university degree.
1875 - Charlotte Whitehead Ross (1843-1916) is the 1st woman to practice medicine in Montreal ( she is not licensed) Source: Government of Manitoba. Status of Women. Women working for Healthy Communities by Ada Ducas et all October 2001. Online. Accessed December 2011
1875 - Dr. Jennie Trout
returns from a medical school in the U.S.A. with her medical degree in
her hand. She is the 1st woman licensed
to practice medicine in Canada.
1875 - Henrietta Muir Edwards
(1849-1931) and her sister open the
Working Girl's Association in
Montreal. It offers a boarding house, a reading room, classes and
A British common law ruling attests that women are persons in
matters of pains and penalties, but are not persons in matters of
rights and privileges.
Source: History of Women's Rights,
Nellie McClung Foundation online accessed April 2013
- The Toronto Women's Literary Club is founded by Dr Emily Howard Stowe (1831-1903) and her
daughter, Dr Augusta Stowe-Gullen. (1857-1943). The group is created for suffrage
|1877||1877 - The
University of Manitoba is created. It is the oldest university in
1877 - Dr. Emily Stowe (1831-1903) establishes the Women's Literacy Club, primarily a consciousness-raising group which is the forerunner of the women's suffrage organizations.
1877 - Onésime Dorval (1845-1932) is the 1st trained teacher to arrive in the Red River Settlement. Source: Directory of Designations of National Historic Significance of Canada http://pc.gc.ca (accessed July 2005)
1877 - Dr Lenora King (1851-1925) sails for Shanghai, the 1st Canadian Doctor to serve in China, some 60 years before Dr. Norman Bethune. Source: Merna Forster, 100 Canadian women: familiar and forgotten Faces ( Dundurn, 2004)
1877 - The Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Society is founded in Montreal, Quebec. Source. Jewish Women's Archives: Jewish Women, a comprehensive historical Encyclopedia. online (accessed July 2011)
1877 - The 1st commercial telephone in Canada is installed in Hamilton, Ontario.
1877 - Born Alice Marion Curtis (1877-1964) social activist in Home & school associations.
1877 - Born Lulu Mae Johnson Eads (1877?-1918) businesswoman, dance hall performer and hotel proprietor.
1877 - Born Marion Fraser (1877-1928) pioneer hockey player.
1877 - Born Dr. Rowena Grace Douglas Hume (1877-1966) indomitable woman doctor.
1877 - Born Marcelle Hémond-Lacoste (1877- ) one of the four women to be 1called to the Bar in Quebec.
1877 - Born Dr. Frances Gertrude McGill (1877-1959) early Canadian medical criminal forensic investigator.
1877 - Born Lorrie Alfreda Dunnington-Grubb (1877-1945) pioneer in the profession of landscape architecture.
1877 - Born Isabel Skelton (1877-1956) respected historian & author.
January 12, 1877 - Born Maude Pettit Hill-Beaton (1877-1959) journalist who used pen name 'Videre'
March 9, 1877 - Born Caroline Louise Josephine Wells (1977-1939) 1st Canadian woman dentist
May 16, 1877 - Born Ida Virginia Barclay (1877-1935) businesswoman & owner of ski resort, one of the 1st to offer ski trails.
June 10, 1877 - Born Eva Finkelstein Abremovich (1877-1953) in 1897 she graduated as one of the 1st Jewish persons from Manitoba College.
August 13, 1877 - Born Jeanne Lydia Branda, Sister Marie Thomas d'Aquin (1877-1963) religious leader & poet.
December 1, 1877 - Born Sarah 'Allie' Brock Brick (1877-1947) pioneer in Canadian North West.
December 7, 1877 - Born Constance Lindsay Skinner (1877-1939) journalist, poet, author & historian.
1877 - Died Mary Elizabeth Bibb (1820-1877) the 1st black woman journalist in Canada. She is a National Historic Person.
|1878||1878 - Félicité Angers
(1845-1924) is the pen name of Laure
Conan, author of nine novels of French Canadian Life. She is the
Canadian female novelist.
1878 - Charlotte Whitehead Ross (1843-1916) is the 1st woman to practice medicine in Manitoba (she is not licensed) Source: Government of Manitoba. Status of Women. Women working for Healthy Communities by Ada Ducas et all October 2001. Online (Accessed December 2011)
1878 - The women of Anshe Sholom Congregation in Hamilton, Ontario establish the Deborah Ladies Aid. Source. Jewish Women's Archives: Jewish Women, a comprehensive historical Encyclopedia. online (accessed July 2011)
July 15, 1878 - The 1st telephone exchange in the British Empire in opened by the Hamilton District Company in Hamilton, Ontario.
1878 - Born Amelia Beers Garvin (1878-1956) journalist & editor.
1878 - Born Florence Harvey (1878-1968) member of Canada's Golf Hall of Fame.
1878 - Born Madge MacBeth (1878-1965) multimedia author with over 20 novels to her credit.
1878 - Born Mary Isabel Ross Pinkham (1878-1964) social activist & volunteer.
January 12, 1878 - Born Dr. Margaret Ellen Douglass (1878-1950) doctor & medical administrator in Manitoba.
January 18, 1878 - Born Irma LeVasseur (1878-1964) the 1st woman to practice medicine in the province of Quebec& pioneer in pediatrics.
February 10, 1878 - Born Jane "Jennie" Smillie Robertson (1878-1981) an indomitable lady doctor perhaps 1st woman doctor to perform surgery in Canada.
June 7, 1878 - Born Lady Elsie Elizabeth Allardyce (1878-1962) founder of Girl Guides in Newfoundland.
July 27, 1878 - Born Béatrice La Palme Issaurel (1878-1921) acclaimed international opera singer.
October 24, 1878 - Born Nellie Lyle Pattinson (1878-1953) educator
- Typewriters are 1st introduced in Canada.
Source: Jean Bannerman, Leading Ladies of Canada (Belleville,
Mika Publishing, 1977);
1879 - Born Flora Eaton (1879-1970) socialite & philanthropist.
1879 - Born Mary Adelaide Dawson Snider (1879-1932) early journalist & a founder of Canadian Women's Press Club (CWPC)..
1879 - Born Miriam Green Ellis (1879-1964) celebrated journalist in the Canadian prairies.
1879 - Born Anna Sprott (1879-1961) founder of West Coast Radio School & Vancouver alderman.
1879 - Born Helena Rose Gutteridge (1879-1960) 1st woman elected to Vancouver City Council.
1879 - Born Ethel Johns, (1879-1968) nurse, teacher & administrator.
1879 - Born Mary Letitia Lamb (1879-1960) missionary to China.
1879 - Born Gertrude Balmer Watt (1873-1963) journalist
January 18, 1879 - Born Alice Helen Collins (1879-1955) poet & composer.
March 20, 1879 - Born Maud Leonora Menten (1879-1960) the 1st Canadian woman to receive her medical doctorate.
1879 - Born Gertrude Balmer Watt (1873-1963) journalist
June 14, 1879 - Born Rena Maude McLean, (1879-1918) a nursing sister of World War l
August 1,1879 - Born Eva Tanguay (1879-1947) vaudevillian and movie star who in 1912 was the highest paid woman actor in the US.
August 9, 1879 - Born Arthamise Fortin (1879-1953) pioneer of Northern Ontario
September 20, 1879 - Died Rosanna Eleanora Leprohn (1829-1879) novelist & poet.
|1880||1880 - Emily Stowe (1831-1903) is finally granted license to practice medicine in Toronto even though she has been practicing medicine for years.
1880 - Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) teaches English and Bookkeeping Source: Jean Bannerman, Leading Ladies of Canada (Belleville, Mika Publishing, 1977);
1880 - 1905 - The Ontario Industrial Refuge for Girls houses young female offenders under the age of 16.
1880 - Toronto Women's Reformatory is built on King St. near Dufferin St. Source: Gretta Wong, Grant Canada's First Chinese Canadian Lawyer by Constance Backhouse, accessed January 2013.
1880 - Born Lily J. Laverstok (1880?-1969) west coast theatre impresario.
1880 - Born Louise Alexander (1880-1946) artist
1880 - Born Mary Adelaide Dawson Snider (1880-1932) journalist.
June 25, 1888 - Born Edna May Williston Sexton (1880-1923) social activist
July 21, 1880 - Born Roberta Catherine MacAdams (1880-1959) in 1918 1st woman in British Empire to introduce legislation in a parliament (Alberta)
The 1st Canadian Assembly of Knights of Labour is formed in
Hamilton, Ontario. The Knights organize skilled & unskilled workers
both male and female, & are the forerunner of the industrial unions.
1881 - Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia passes a regulation allowing women to be admitted to Medical College. Source: The indomitable Lady Doctors by Carlotta Hacker, Clarke-Irwin, 1974.
Female teachers in
Toronto earn $200.00 to $600.00 per year depending on experience
while male teachers earn $750.00 to $1100.00.
Janet Ray, Towards Women’s Rights,
Toronto, Grolier Ltd, 1981.
The Ontario government
allows single women who owned property to vote on Municipal by-laws.
Janet Ray, Towards Women’s Rights,
Toronto, Grolier Ltd, 1981.
1882 - A movement was formed in Quebec to encourage teaching of household sciences with consideration for the establishment of a school of domestic sciences in Roberval, Quebec. Source: Dictionary of Canadian Biography Toronto; University of Toronto/Laval Université, 2005 vol. 15 1921-1930 p. 21-24.
1882 - The
Toronto Labour Council supports the principle of equal pay for equal
work. Leonora Barry (1849-1923), the
American general investigator of the Women's Work for the
Knights of Labour, comes to Toronto to investigate the working
conditions of women and help organize them.
1882 - The electric cooking range is
invented by Canadian Thomas Ahern
Source : Canuck Chicks and Maple Leaf Mamas : women of the
Great White North by Ann Douglas Toronto, McArthur and Co., 2002. pg
February 9, 1883 - the 1st public library opens in
Guelph, Ontario Source: Database Canada by Bob
Bowman (Toronto; Holt, 1967)
1883 - Sir John A. Macdonald (1815-1891) introduces an unsuccessful parliamentary bill that includes the granting of Dominion franchise to unmarried women and widows possessing the required property qualifications. Source: .History of Women's Rights, Nellie McClung Foundation online accessed April 2013
June 1883 - Elizabeth Secord (1841-1916) becomes the 1st qualified registered physician in the Province of New Brunswick .Sources: Obituary, reprinted on the Hartt Family Website www.myhartt.com accessed 2010. ; New Brunswick Women’s History Online accessed 2010.
1883 - Manitoba Medical College is established and accepts women students from the start. Source: The indomitable Lady Doctors by Carlotta Hacker, Clarke Irwin, 1974.
July 21, 1883 - 1st party of girls arrives in Canada under Barnardo Homes own organization on board Sardinian. They are part of the Home Children who come to Canada. Source British Home Children In Canada compiled by Lori Oschefski. Online Accessed July 2014 includes photo.
1883 - Dr.
Augusta Stowe-Gullen (1857- 1943) is the
1st woman to graduate in medicine from a
Canadian university at Victoria College, Cobourg,
October 1, 1883 - The Toronto Women's Medical College, the
medical school in Canada for women, is opened.
The school will last until a merger with the Ontario
Women's Medical College in 1895.Source: A history of Women's College
Married women’s property legislation is passed in
1884 - The Ontario government allows women land owners to vote in municipal elections.
1884 - Ontario Married Women's Property
Act grants married women the right to own
property, deal with it and sell it without consulting her
husband. Source: .History
of Women's Rights, Nellie McClung Foundation online accessed
|1885||March 11, 1885 - Jenny
(1841-1921) became the 1st Canadian woman
licensed to practice medicine in Canada.
May 12, 1885 - Loretta Miller becomes the 1st woman to serve in the Canadian military when she arrives at a Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Field hospital during the North West Rebellion. She is soon joined by nurses such as Hannah Grier Coomes of Toronto. In total 12 nurses would serve in the North West Rebellion.
1885 - An attempt was made to include women in the ‘Dominion Franchise Act’ but was not successful. The Act restricted the right to vote to men and specifically excluded any person of Asian descent, women, idiots, lunatics and criminals. A man can vote if he or his wife own property but she is responsible for her own property tax.
July 3 1885 - The Saskatoon Field Hospital is decommissioned. It is the 1st Field Hospital to formally emply nurses to serve in the military. For the 1st time female nurses are recognized for theri contribution in the Military and it is the 1st time that the Red Cross symbol is used in Canada when nurses used on their armbands.
November 7, 1885 - The last spike of the transcontinental railroad is hammered into place.
November 16, 1885 - Louis Riel (1844-1885) is hanged in Regina for his part in leading a rebellion.
1885 - John Waters (1829-1910), a member of the Ontario Provincial Legislature 1879-1894, introduces a woman’s suffrage bill, one of several such unsuccessful bills introduced to the Ontario Legislature in the late 1880’s.
1885 - In Alberta, unmarried women who
own property are granted the right to vote and hold office in school
of Women's Rights, Nellie McClung Foundation online accessed
1886 - After receiving 6 petitions the New Brunswick provincial legislature grants unmarried women who are property owners the right to vote in municipal elections. Source: Janet Ray, Towards Women’s Rights, Toronto, Grolier Ltd, 1981.
1886 - Married women’s property legislation is passed in the Northwest Territories.
September 1886 - Mary Ella Dignam (1860-1938) organizes a group of young artists in Toronto. They meet to work together in painting, drawing, modeling and sketching from still life and living models. This group would be the basis for the future (1907) Women's Art Association of Canada. Source Since 1886. Women's Art Association of Canada - History www.womensartofcanada.ca/history accessed July 2011.
October 7, 1886 - Marion Oliver (1855-1913) one of the 1st Canadian medical missionaries in India, set sail from Canada on her 1st trip to India.
1886 - May Irwin (1862-1938) is the star of pioneering one minute movie by Thomas Edison (1847-1931), the famous inventor, called The Kiss. It was the 1st kiss of the movies!!! It was considered scandalous by early movie audiences and the clergy! It is considered to be the 1st moving picture to ever be shown in Canada!
1886 - The Canadian Pacific Railway publishes the results of its survey of 400 women in Manitoba in a 50-page pamphlet entitled What women Say of the Canadian Northwest. Source: Dave McIntosh "Go west young woman" in The Beaver December 1992-January 1993
1886 - The 1st known women's lacrosse game is played. Source: www.Womenwarriors.ca
1886 - Born Genevieve Elsie Alice Lipsett-Skinner (1886-1935) 1st woman journalist in Canadian Press Gallery.
1886 - Born Jean Cairns (1886-1982) 5th woman to be called to the bar (Lawyer) in Ontario.
January 8, 1886 - Born Elizabeth Jane Bulloch Adams (1886- ) pioneer farmer in Manitoba.
February 8, 1886 - Born Sarah Persis Johnson Darrach (1886-1974) World War l nurse, matron of nursing Brandon Manitoba, Order of the British Empire (OBE).
October 18, 1886 - Born Thais Frémont (1886-1963) social activist
October 22, 1886 - Born Jeanne St Laurent (1886-1966) wife of Prime Minister Louis St Laurent 1882-1973).
November 14, 1886 - Born Emilie Musgrave Boswell (1886-1955) early journalist with the Winnipeg Tribune.
December 18, 1886 - Born Violet Pooley Sweeny (1886-1965) champion west coast golfer.
1886 - Died Mary Christianne Morris (1804?-1886) respected native artist & model.
1886 - Died Susannah Oland (1798-1886) brewer & businesswoman
October 4, 1886 - Died Mary McKenzie (1796-1886) early pioneer of the Canadian North West
June 3, 1887 - Zina Card
(1850-1931) arrives at Lee's Creek (Cardston) Alberta
with ten families to establish a settlement of members of the Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons).
Aunt Zina; the life of Zina Young Williams Card.
Church History. History.lds.org (accessed September 2014)
1887 - The Manitoba Legislature passes a law that allows both married and single women who own property the right to vote in municipal elections but women are not eligible for municipal office until 1917.
1887 - Yo Shishido becomes the 1st Japanese Issei woman to settle in Canada. She settles with her husband Washiji Oya a store proprietor on Powell St., Vancouver, British Columbia. Source: Japanese Canadian Timeline Canaddianniklei.ca (accessed June 2012)
1887 - Anna Harriett Leonowens (1834-1915) organizes an exhibit of art in Halifax, Nova Scotia that will eventually lead to the establishment of the Victoria School of Art. Source: Important Moments in Canadian Art History compiled by Dr. Robert J. Belton, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Creative Projects http://ubc.ca/okanagan/creative/links/timeline (accessed February 2006)
March 25, 1888 - April 1, 1888 -
the International Council of Women (ICW) is formed in
Washington, DC, U.S.A. with representatives from 9 countries
including Canada in attendance. The ICW works for the common cause
of advocating human rights for women.
1888 - Harriet Brooks (1876-1933) begins research as Canada’s 1st woman nuclear physicist.
1888 - Octavia Grace Ritchie (married name England) (1868-1948) is the 1st woman valedictorian at McGill University.
1888 - Richard Sears of the USA is selling so much in catalogue orders in Canada that an office is opened in Toronto. Source: Before e-commerce : a history of mail order catalogues http://wwwcivilization.ca/cpm/catalog/catooooe.html December 2004.
1888 - Moulton Ladies' College, named for Susan Moulton McMaster, is opened in Hamilton, Ontario. It served for 66 years. The buildings were sold and demolished in the mid 1950"s
1888 - Born René M. Caisse (1888-1978) a nurse who developed ESSIAC what she thought was a cure to some cancers.
1888 - Born Lizzie Cyr (1888?-???) the woman who energized the Famous Five and the Persons Case of 1929.
1888 - Born Margaret Teresa Lally Murray (1888-1982) newspaper editor, owner & journalist.
1888 - Born Frances Lillian Fish (1888-1975) the 1st woman to graduate Dalhousie University with a Law Degree & she the 1st woman called to the Bar in Nova Scotia.
1888 - Born Maisie Hurley (1888-1964) founder of the 1st native newspaper, The Native Voice.
January 20, 1888 - Born Ethel Davis Wilson (1888-1980) acclaimed author.
February 8, 1888 - Born Ada Jane Fairlina Kent (1888-1969) musician & composer.
February 25, 1888 - Born Ethel Matilda Chapman (1888-1976) home sciences journalist in Ottawa, Ontario.
March 15,1888 - Born Constance Mary Evans (1888-????) romance novelist.
June 19, 1888 - Born Ada Annie Rae-Arthur (1888-1985) pioneer botanist known as Cougar Annie.
July 8,1888 - Born Evelyn Bolduc, (1888-1939) translator & author.
September 2, 1888 - Born Dorothy Stevens (1888-1966) portrait & figure painter.
September 27,1888 - Born Constance Eleda Brewster (1888-1988) a well respected nursing administrator in Hamilton, Ontario.
October 11, 1888 - Born Léonise Valois (1888-1936) 1st woman to publish poetry in Quebec & journalist
November 4, 1888 - Born Violet Alice Dryvynsyde (1888-1969) educator who opened her own school & published books.
1888 - Died Elizabeth Barrett ( -1888) 1st professional teacher in Alberta.
January 7, 1888 - Died Harriet Annie Wilkins (1829-1888) teacher & author.
August 5 1888- Died Anna Swan (1846-1888) in her day she was the tallest woman in the world some 228 cm (7'6").
The Dominion Women’s Enfranchisement Association is
formed to incorporate all suffrage groups in the
1889 - Eliza Ritchie. (1856-1935). receives her Ph.D. Cornell University U.S.A., probably 1st Canadian woman to receive her doctor of letters.
September 25, 1889 - Laura Bond (1889-1940) marries Robert Laird Bordon (1854-1937) future Prime Minister of Canada.
1889 - The Royal Victoria College for women opens in Montreal. Source: The Timechart history of Canada by Meredith Macardle (2004)
1889 - Isobel Stanley (1875-1963), daughter of Governor General Lord Stanley of Preston, is one of the 1st women hockey players in Canada. Her Government House hockey team played the Rideau Ladies team in what may be the 1st women's hockey game on the ice rink at Rideau Hall, Residence of the Governor General of Canada. Source: http://www.womenwarriors.ca Timeline
1889 - Mary Ellen Birtles (1858-1943) is one of the 1st three graduates of the nurse training programme at the Winnipeg General Hospital. Source: Memorable Manitobans. Profile by Gordon Goldsborough Online (Accessed December 2011)
January 25, 1890 -
Female nurses in the military are accredited as Lieutenants with
pay and allowance of that rank.
1890 - Canadian Icelandic women, who had the right to vote back in Iceland, are led Margaret Benedictsson (1866-1956) , to start the 1st suffrage movement in the west.
1890 - The province of Manitoba passes a law granting women ratepayers the right to vote and hold office at the level of a school board. Source: .History of Women's Rights, Nellie McClung Foundation online accessed April 2013
1890 - Isobel Stanley, Lady Isobel Gathorne-Hardy (1875-1963), Lord Stanley's daughter, is photographed playing hockey in the 1st recorded image on film of a woman involved in the sport. Lord Stanley (1841-1908), then Governor General of Canada, would donate a silver cup that would become known as the Stanley Cup.
June 4, 1890 - Medicine Hat General Hospital is opened. Grace Louise Reynolds (later Calder) is the 1st Matron. The hospital is the 1st of its kind between Winnipeg and British Columbia. Source: Kay Saunderson, 200 Remarkable Alberta Women, (Famous Five Foundation, 1999).
June 12-13, 1890 - The 1st convention of the Dominion Women's Enfranchisement Association was held in Toronto. Noted American Susan B. Anthony attended as a guest.
1890 - Dr Anna McFee, a medical student at the Women's medical School in Toronto starts a clinic for women to come to see women physicians. Source: A history of Women's college http://sunnybrookandwomens.on.ca/progrms/wcacc/history (accessed February 2006)
1890 - Mary Ella Dignam (1860-1938)
formalizes her artists group set up in 1886 into the Women's Art
Club. Yet another step into establishing the Women's Art Association
of Canada (1907) Source: Since 1886. Women's Art
Association of Canada - History
http://www.womensartofcanad.ca/history accessed July 2011.
|1891|| 1891 -
41% of women in the labour force are employed as domestics. The
most common occupations for women were all traditional homemaker
type jobs such as servants, dressmakers, seamstresses etc.
February 11, 1891 - The 1st newspaper account of a game between two unnamed women's hockey teams appears in the Ottawa Citizen Newspaper. The game took place in Ottawa and is now regarded as the start of Women's Hockey ice hockey. Source www.femalehockey.ca Accessed January 2012. Used with permission.
1891 - The Women’s Christian Temperance Union officially endorses the suffrage cause.
1891 - Robertine Barry (1863-1910) A well known personality in Montreal society and a pioneer feminist lecturer and writer joins the staff of the weekly newspaper La Patrie. She is considered the 1st woman journalist in French Canada.
1891 - Octavia Grace Ritchie (married name England) (1868-1948) is the 1st woman to receive a medical degree in the province of Quebec. She attended Bishop's University.
1891 - The 1st women's golf clubs are formed at the Royal Montreal Golf Club, the Royal Quebec Golf Club and the Toronto Golf Club.
February 11, 1891 - The 1st newspaper account of a game of women's ice hockey appears in the Ottawa Citizen newspaper. Reports of the 1st game being held in Barrie, Ontario in 1892 are incorrect.
1891 - Born Frances Hawkins (1891-1979) teacher in Japan and for World War ll Japanese Canadian in inductee camps.
1891 - Born Grace Blue (1891-1992) educator
1891 - Born Edith Louise Patterson (1891-1980) 1929 , appointed judge in the juvenile court. 1st woman member of the Law Society of British Columbia.
1891 - Born Alexandrine Gibb (1891-1958) pioneer woman sports journalist for women's sports.
1891 - Born Laura Denton Duff (1891- ?? ) co-founder Women's Law Association
1891 - Born Myrtle Philip (1891-1986) businesswoman & pioneer ski lodge owner.
1891 - Born Kate Aitken (1891-1971) journalist, author, radio & TV Personality, lecturer.
1891 - Born Ethel Mary Bennett (1891-1988) award winning writer of historical novels
January 23, 1891 - Born Cora Bell Ahrens (1891-1964) teacher, lecturer & pianist
March 1, 1891 - Born Leocadie-Romaine Gascoin / Sister Marie des Sept-Douleurs (
April 29, 1891 - Born Florence Durrell Clark (1891-1977) musician & composer
June 16, 1891- Born Sarah Margaret Armor Roberston (1891-1948), artist who was one of the top painters of her day.
July 18, 1891 - Born Ethlyn Trapp (1891-1972) 1st woman president of the National Cancer Institute of Canada
July 22, 1891 - Born Isabelle Atkinson (1891-1968) feminist, journalist President of the Canadian Consumers Association.
October 3, 1891 - Born Laura Blanche McCain (1891-1982) volunteer & social activist in New Brunswick.
October 11, 1891 - Born Eva Catherine Ault-Buels (1891-1984) pioneer ladies ice hockey player know as 'Queen of the Ice'.
November 2, 1891 - Born Anna Selick-Raginsky (1891-1981) social activist in the Canadian Zionist movement.
December 23, 1891 - Born Stella Irene Boyd (1891-1945) entertainer, contralto & vocal teacher in Manitoba.
|1892||1892 - Quebec’s
Conservative premier, Charles-E. Boucher of Boucherville,
spearheaded the passing of legislation granting single, land-owning
women and windows the right to vote in municipal and school
elections so long as they did not run for office themselves.
1892 - The Ontario Mines Act prohibits women from working in and around mines.
March 2, 1892 - Mildred Lewis Ware (1871-1905) and ex American Slave James Ware (1854-1905) are married. The couple will be pioneer ranchers in Alberta and raise 9 children.
May 28, 1892 - Marie Dressler
(1868-1934) makes her New York City, U.S.A. singing debut in the comic
opera, The Robber of the Rhine. The Comedienne, born in Coberg,
Ontario would win an academy award for her acting talents.
1892 - An organized all female ice hockey game is played
in Barrie, Ontario. Research reveals a description of just one game
in that community during the year and that game actually featured
women playing men dressed as women. (I wonder how they enjoyed
playing in long skirts?) Source:
Accessed January 2012. Used with permission.
|1893||October 27, 1893 - Lady Aberdeen, Ishbel Maria Gordon, Marchioness of
Tweedsmuir, (1857-1939) wife of the Canadian Governor General, chairs the
organizational meeting of the National Council of
Women in Canada.
1893 - John Waters (1829-1910), a member of the Ontario Provincial Legislature 1879-1894, once again introduces a woman’s suffrage bill, it is just 1 of several such unsuccessful bills introduced to the Ontario Legislature through the late 1880’s and into the 1890’s.
1893 - 1964 -
The Ontario Female Refugee Act allowed an person to bring before a
judge any female under the age of 21 who was considered
‘unmanageable’ or ‘incorrigible’ ( including unwed mothers) so that
the individual’s fate could be determined. (i.e. that she should
become committed to an institution or not)
West Territories allows unmarried women to vote in municipal
elections but not to hold office.
August 30, 1894 - the 1st executive committee of the newly formed Local Council of Women Halifax meets at the Nova Scotia Government House. Emma Macintosh served as the 1st president and Anna Leonowens (1831-1915) as the secretary. Enfranchisement was the issue.
1894 - The New Brunswick Women’s Enfranchisement Association, a branch of the Dominion Association, is formed with Mrs. Edward Manning as President. Source: Janet Ray, Towards Women’s Rights, Toronto, Grolier Ltd, 1981.
1894 - Miss Hamilton is the 1st woman to graduate from the Halifax Medical College as a medical doctor. Source: Lucy Maud Montgomery 'A girl's place at Dalhousie College" Halifax Herald, April 1896.
1894 - Dr. Amelia Yeomans (1881-1968) becomes president of the Manitoba Equal Franchise Club, the 1st English-speaking suffrage group formed west of Ontario.
1894 - Margaret Marshall Saunders (1861-1947.) writes Beautiful Joe, a story of an abused dog, winning a competition sponsored by the American Humane Society. The book becomes the first Canadian book to sell more than 1,000,000 copies. It is translated into more than 14 different languages.
1894- Emilie Tremblay (1872-1949) pioneer of the Yukon and 1st white woman to climb the Chilkoot trail in 1894.
1894 - The 1st female club hockey team called the Love-Me-Nots is formed at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario.
1894 - YWCA in Hamilton, Ontario, opens a School of Domestic Science, the first of its kind in Canada. Adelaide Hoodless ( 1857-1910.) and the Hamilton YWCA are instrumental in having the subject of domestic science incorporated into the Ontario provincial school system. Source: History of the YWCA http://www.ywcacanada.ca/
1894 - College girls began to play hockey at McGill University. Source: Women's Hockey - History of Hockey http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/hockey... accessed June 2011. - Ladies who are students at Queens University, Kingston, Ontario for a hockey team frowned upon by the Archbishop at Queen's They originally called themselves the Love-Me-Nots but the following year they changed their name to the Morning Glories. Source: www.femalehockey.ca ; "Old time hockey rebels : The Love-Me-Nots of Queen's University" by Dirk Hoag. On the Forecheck Online accessed January 2013.
1894 - Mary Agnes Fitzgibbon founds the Canadian Women's Historical Society of Toronto.
1894 - Robert Simpson Co. store in Toronto is destroyed by fire. Source: Important Moments in Canadian Art History compiled by Dr. Robert J. Belton, University of British Columbia, Okanogan Creative Projects http://ubc.ca/okanagan/creative/links/timeline (accessed February 2006)
1894 - Born Pauline Boutal 1894-1992) artist & theatre designer/director.
1894 - Born Lovedy Josephine Campbell Scott (1894-1980) lawyer
1894 - Born Vega Dawson (1894- 1988) Order of the British Empire (OBE) for war services.
1894 - Born Allie Vibert Douglas (1894-1988) she was Dean of Women at Queen's University & an international lecturer in astronomy.
1894 - Born Florence Jessie Murray (1894-1975) Presbyterian medical missionary in Asia who was decorated by King of Denmark for her service.
1894 - Born Phyllis Munday (1894-1990.) one of the 1st women to reach the summit of Mount Robson, & early Girl Guide organizer.
1894 - Born Aileen Powers-Peel (1894-1918) nurse in World War l.
1894 - Born Mona Gordon Wilson (1894-1981) known as the Florence Nightingale of St. John's, Newfoundland.
April 9, 1894 - Born Cecilia Krieger (1894-1974) noted mathematician.
May 28, 1894 - Born Beatrice Lillie, (1894-1989) outstanding comedic actress of her era.
June 4, 1894 - Born Mary Travers (La Bolduc) (1894-1941) popular vocalist & composer of her era.
August 1894 - Born Gladys Muriel Porter (1894-1967) 1st woman elected to the Nova Scotia Provincial Legislature.
September 5, 1894 - Born Lydia Emélie Gruchy (1894-1992) in 1936 she became 1st woman ordained as a minister in the United Church of Canada
December 15, 1894 - Born Allie Vibert Douglas (1894-1988) 1st woman in Canada to graduate with a PhD in astrophysics.
July 27, 1894 - Died Louisa Annie Murray (1818-1894) author
Yukon becomes a provisional district separate from the Northwest
1895 - A suffrage association is formed in Halifax, Nova Scotia, but is short lived and not heard from after its initial inauguration. Source: Janet Ray, Towards Women’s Rights, Toronto, Grolier Ltd, 1981.
1895 - The Toronto School Board will not hire married women nor women over 30 years of age. Source: Canadian Chronology http://tdi.uregina.ca/~maguirec/chron.htm (accessed April 28, 2003)
1895 - Helen Mary 'Marie' Grant (1843-1907) of British Columbia is appointed as the 1st women school trustee in Canada.
1895 - The Law Society of Upper Canada admits women as barristers.
1895 - A loaf of bread costs 5 cents and fabric sold for 25 cents a yard.
1895 - Pearl Smith Chute (1975-????) is the 1st woman doctor to intern in Canada. She marries and becomes a Medical Missionary to India. Source: The Indomitable Lady Doctors by Carlotta Hacker, Clarke Irwin, 1974).
1895 - The Toronto Camera Club debates opening it membership to women. Women were finally accepted as members. Most other camera clubs in Canada were already accepting women as members. Source: Important Moments in Canadian Art History compiled by Dr. Robert J. Belton, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Creative Projects http://ubc.ca/okanagan/creative/links/timeline (accessed February 2006)
1895 - Some women teachers in Toronto while riding bicycles to school chose to wear bloomers…long loose trousers gathered tightly at the ankle and worn under a short skirt. This initiated the Toronto Bloomer Scandal when a school board member made a motion to report the names of all female teachers who wore such male attire. The motion was defeated!!! Source: Janet Ray, Towards Women’s Rights, Toronto, Grolier Ltd, 1981.
1895 - The Women's Medical College, Toronto and the Kingston Women's Medical College to form the Ontario Medical College for Women(1895-1905). Source: A history of Women's College http://sunnbrookandwomens.on.ca (Accessed February 2006)
A suffrage association is formed in Halifax, Nova
Scotia, but is short lived and
not heard from after its initial inauguration.
Janet Ray, Towards Women’s Rights, Toronto, Grolier Ltd,
February 18, 1896 -
The local Women’s Christian Temperance Union, with
the help of the Women’s Equality Association,
staged a satirical mock parliament, in which an all-female
parliament debated whether men should be granted the right to vote.
The event took place in Toronto’s Allen Gardens with
Dr. Emily Stowe
playing the role of the Premier and her daughter
playing the role of the provincial
March 6, 1896 - Queen's University ,Kingston, Ontario, women's hockey team, The Morning Glories defeat the Blues and Blacks of the Ladies College with a score of 2-1. This is perhaps the 1st college women's hockey game. Women's ice hockey teams are also formed at McGill University and in the Ottawa Valley. .Source "Old Time Hockey Rebels: the Love-Me-Littles of Queen's University." by Dirk Hoag. On The Forecheck On line Accessed January 2013.
1896 - The 1st Home Economics courses in Canadian Public Schools begin in Hamilton, Ontario after intensive lobbying of the National Council of Women in Canada. Source: Herstory: the Canadian Women's Calendar (Silver anniversary edition) 2000. Coteau Books, 1999 page 30.
August 16, 1896 - Gold is discovered in the
|1897||February 2, 1897 - Clara Brett Martin (1874-1923) becomes the
1st woman admitted to the Bar in Ontario making her the 1st female
lawyer in Canada and the 1st woman to enter the profession of law
in the British Empire.
February 19, 1897 - The 1st Women's Institute meets at Stoney Creek, Ontario. Within a few years the movement spread across Canada and around the world.
June 1897 - The National Council of women holds its annual meeting in Halifax. Lady Aberdeen, Ishbel Maria Gordon, Marchioness of Aberdeen and Temair, (1857-1939) and American suffragist Mary Wright Sewell were among the women who made presentations at the event. Source: History, Local Council of Women Halifax www.lcwhalifax.org (Accessed January 2016)
1897 - Lady Aberdeen, Ishbel Maria Gordon, Marchioness of Aberdeen and Temair, (1857-1939) established he Victorian Order of Nurses to serve sparsely populated communities.
1897 - Medola de Sola founded the National Council of Jewish Women in Toronto. It is the oldest Jewish women's organization in Canada.
1897 - The Ontario School Act is amended permitting School Boards to provide elementary grade instruction for children from five years of age and permission to offer kindergarten for three to five year olds. The Act also included kindergarten as a teaching specialty in Normal Schools (Teacher’s colleges) in Toronto and Ottawa.
Artist and portrait painter
(1869-1959) is the 1st Canadian to receive the Prix Julian from
the Académie Julian in Paris, France. Source: Important moments in Canadian
History http;;/www.ouc.bc.ca/flar/timeline ( accessed May 2002)
Ottawa and Toronto, Ontario normal schools (Teacher's Colleges)
include courses so that women teachers have knowledge of the
educational value of Domestic Sciences (Home Economics)
Source: Herstory: the Canadian Women's Calendar
2000 (Silver anniversary edition) . Coteau Books, 1999 page 30.
publishes her 1st book, Public School
Domestic Science, the 1st book of its kind in Canada.
January 1, 1899 -
2 cent postage will pay to have a letter delivered anywhere in the
January 20, 1899 - The Sons of Freedom Doukabors lad in Halifax. The eventually settle on the West coast of Canada.
1899 - Wages and cost of Living for Women Workers in Ontario for one year $216.71 Yearly Cost of Living including clothing, lodging and board $214.28 leaving a surplus of $2.43. Source: Ontario Bureau of Industries.
1899 - Born Agnes Watts (1899-1989) west coast philanthropist
1899 - Born Gladys Powers (1988-2008) last surviving World War I veteran 2008.
1899 - Born Nora Ellen Dunwoody (1899-1988) she was known for establishing gift shops as fund raisers for hospital auxiliaries
1899 - Born Mary Emma Quayle Innis (1899-1972) noted economic historian and educator.
1899 - Born Constance Woodrow (1899-1937) author.
January 29, 1899 - Born Leila Wightman (1899-1976) 1st Canadian woman to own and run a telephone company (1947).
February 7, 1899- Born Helen Bernard McCall (1899-1957) pioneer photographer in British Columbia who left a rich legacy of her works.
April 30, 1899 - Born Margaret McTavish Konantz (1899-1967) international welfare organizer.
May 26, 1899 - Born Muriel McQueen Fergusson (1899-1997) member of the Canadian Senate.
September 5, 1899 - Born Helen Mary Creighton (1899-1989) distinguished folklorist.
November 6, 1899 - Born Aileen Motley Doerksen (1899-1971) teacher & community volunteer
November 30, 1899 - Born Edna May Diefenbaker (1899-1951) wife of John George Diefenbaker (1895-1979) 13th Prime Minister of Canada. Note some sources report her birth date as 1901.
January 3, 1899 - Died Anne Molson (1824-1899) philanthropist, wife of John Molson.
May 2, 1899 - Died Fanny Bendixen (1820-1899) who ran boarding houses and saloon in Cariboo region of British Colimbia durint 1860-1890's gold rush.
September 12, 1899 - Died Margaret Lawrence (1926-1987) award winning author.
October 22, 1899 - Died Margaret Moran Dixon MacDougall/McDougall (1828-1899) poet, journalist & author.