1930 AD to 1939 AD
||February 15, 1930 - Cairine Wilson (1895-1962)
become the 1st woman appointed to
the Senate in Canada.
1930 - From early 19th century to 1930 250,000 women immigrated to Canada mainly from the United Kingdom, Ireland. Middle class homes welcomed these women as domestic workers. Source: Marilyn Barber, "The Women Ontario Welcomed: Immigrant Domestics for Ontario Homes, 1870-1930," Ontario History (1980) 73#3 pp 148-172
1930 - The Canadian government hands over control of lands to the prairie provinces and though there is not much free farm land left women may now apply on equal terms for free farm land. Sources: Encyclopedia of the Great Plains online (Accessed November 2012) : 100 more Canadian Heroines by Merna Forster (Dundurn, 2011)
1930 - Cecile Elaine Eustance Smith Hedstrom (1908-1997) is the 1st Canadian to win a world championship figure skating medal when she places 2nd with a silver medal at a competition in New York City, New York, U.S.A.
March 27, 1930 - The Edmonton Grads women's basketball team beat Seattle Ferry Lines by 59 points over two games to retain the Underwood Trophy and the international title.
1930 - The Business and Professional Women Canada (The Canadian Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs) is formed Source: BPW; History http://www.bpwcanada.com/history.html (accessed May 20, 2005)
1930 - Doctors at the Sick Children's Hospital in Toronto invent Pabulum baby cereal.
1930 - Female teachers in the city of Toronto earn $1000.00 to $2400.00 per year while male teachers earned $1200.00 to $3000.00 per year. Source: Janet Ray, Towards Women’s Rights, Toronto, Grolier Ltd, 1981.
1930 - Wonder Bread, the world's first packaged sliced bread enters the market place. Source : Canuck Chicks and Maple Leaf Mamas : women of the Great White North by Ann Douglas Toronto, McArthur and Co., 2002. pg 15
1930's - The Preston Rivulettes, one of the greatest dynasties in Canadian sport, is formed. The team dominate, female hockey 1930-1939, the Rivulettes clamed 10 Ontario, 10 Eastern Canadian and 6 Dominion hockey titles. Source: www.femalehockey.ca accessed January 2013.
Born 1930 - Jane Margaret Carson Champagne, writer and landscape artist.
Born 1930 - Marion Fry (1932- ) noted educator and university administrator.
February 13, 1930 - Born Miriam Mandel (1930-1982) poet and author, winner of a Governor General's Award..
February 25, 1930 - Born Norma Busby (1930-2008) a nurse who was on the front of labour lines fighting for higher standards and respect of the profession.
March 6, 1930 - Born Mariruth Sarsfield (1930-2013) journalist and broadcaster.
March 18, 1930 - Born Anne Macdonald (1930-1993) social activist
March 26, 1930 - Born Joyce Carter (1930-2011) fashion journalist
April 24, 1930 - Born June Elizabeth Bantjes (1930-2006) social activist and founding member of the Women's Calendar Collective.
May 8, 1930 - Born Agnes Helen Porter an author who excels in writing fiction, poetry and drama.
May 18, 1930 - Born Rose Sheinin, professor and author.
July 15, 1930 - Born Isobel Finnerty, political activist and Senator.
July 25, 1930 - Born Maureen Forrester, opera singer and Canadian nationalist who is a Companion of the Order of Canada.
August 25, 1930 - Born Ruth Middleton Gentry played with the All American Girls Professional Baseball League
September 29, 1930 - Born Constance Elvia Crook (1930- ), author of books for young readers.
October 5, 1930 - Born Joanne Strong Philpott (1930-2011) columnist for the Globe and Mail.
October 20, 1930 - Born Pat Lotz (1930-2012) librarian and researcher.
November 16, 1930 - Born Landon Pearson (1930---) Senator and social activist for the health and rights of children around the world.
December 21, 1930 - Born Claire Lorraine Mackay (1930-2013) author
December 29, 1930 - Born Ruth Tulving (1930- ) artist
May 10, 1930 - Died Zoe Lafontaine Laurier (1849-1930) wife of Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier.
May 19, 1930 - Died Marie Louise-Emilie Lavergne (1849-1930) close friend of Sir Wilfrid Laurier.
November 1, 1930 - Died Emily Ann McCausland Cummings (1851-1930) Journalist and first woman to receive an honorary degree from a Canadian University.
December 9, 1930 - Died Laura Muntz Lyall (1860-1930) artist.
1931 - The Statute of Westminster, passed in the British
Parliament means that Dominion Parliaments could now pass laws
without reference to United Kingdom Laws and abolished various
reserve powers still possessed by the Crown and British Parliament.
The paradoxically increased the monarchy's importance, since the
Dominions (no longer subordinated to the one supreme Parliament
Westminister) were now linked through common allegiance to the
The province of Quebec passes legislation that grants a wife control
of her own earnings.
May 24, 1932
– Federal legislation brings the Canadian Radio Broadcasting
Commission into existence.
1932 - Dr. Elizabeth Catherine Bagshaw (1881-1982) opens the 1st Canadian family planning clinic in Hamilton, Ontario. It is an illegal birth control clinic.
1932- Helena Walker - Mrs. Ashley Walker (1867-1963) is the 1st woman elected alderman in Regina, Saskatchewan. Source: City of Regina. Heritage & History. Online. (Accessed January 2012.)
1932 - Rose-Anna Vachon (1870
develops a delicious cream filled
chocolate cake that she names for two of her sons ...Jos-Louis.
Source: I know That Name by Mark Kearney & Randy
Roy (Toronto: Hounslow, 2002)
1933 - A reasonable and adequate diet for a family of five in Toronto is
$7.65 per week!
1933 - Mary Belle Barclay and her sister E. Catherine Barclay pitch a tent in Bragg Creek, Alberta to welcome campers to the 1st Hostel in North America. In 2012 Parks Canada declare this to be an Historic Site. Source: 100 More Canadian Heroines by Merna Foster Dundurn Press, 2011.
1933 - Canadian Actress Fay Wray (1907-2004) has lead female role in movie King Kong.
Winter 1933 - Lady Bessborough, Roberte de Neuflize Ponsonby (1882-1979), wife of the Governor General of Canada, donates a championship trophy for the Dominion Women's Amateur Hockey Association. The Edmonton Rustlers won the 1st trophy. Source: Coast to Coast Hockey in Canada to the Second World War. Edited by John Chi-Kit Wong. (University of Toronto Press, 2009) page 142.
1933 - The Associated Countrywomen of the World is founded with Margaret Madge Rose Robertson Watt (1888-1948) serving as 1st president until 1947. Book: A great Rural Sisterhood; Madge Robertson Watt and the Associated Countrywomen of the World by Linda Ambrose( University Press)
1933 - Born Mary Dohey ( 1933- ) a stewardess who became a heroine saving lives of passenger and crew from a hijacker in 1971.
May 24, 1933 - Born Marion Ruth Engel (1933-1985) acclaimed author.
August 23, 1933 - Born Betty Lambert (1933-1983) prolific Canadian playwright.
September 1933 - Born Catherine G. Hennessey (1933 - ) Heritage activist.
October 13, 1933 - Born Dorothy Moore (1933- ) Member of the Order of Nova Scotia.
November 20, 1933 - Born Maryon Kantaroff ( 1933- ) award winning sculptor.
December 13, 1933 - Born Grace Lewdoux Zoldy (1933- ) social activist for Métis women and activist to save Michif language.
1933 - Died Marie Vitaline Dudemaine (1865-1933) Sister Mary Anastase.
1933 - Born Eva Mariene Heddle (1933- 2009) At three she was Canada's Sweetheart.
1933 - Died Margaret Hubner Wetherell (d. 1933) local historian
February 27, 1933 - Died Alice Jones (1853-1933) one of Canada's leading authors for her era.
April 15, 1933 - Died Mary Isabella Macleod (1852-1933) pioneer of western Canada.
May 3, 1933 - Died Mary Ellen Smith (1863-1933) 1st woman elected to BC Legislature and 1st woman appointed to a Cabinet position in the British Empire.
July 17, 1933 - Died Mary Agnes Fitzgibbon (1862-1933) Journalist ...pen-name Lally Bernard.
September 3, 1933 - Died Jean Wilson award winning speed skater.
October 10 , 1933- Died Ione Christensen former Commissioner of the Yukon Territories and Appointed to the Senate of Canada 1999.
October 27, 1933 - Died Emily Murphy,(1868-1933) judge and member of the Famous Five.
|1934||March 9, 1934 - New Brunswick women win
the right to hold provincial office.
1934 - The New Brunswick government passes legislation gaining women in New Brunswick the right to hold political office.
The province of Quebec passes legislation that allows a wife
control of her own bank account.
Aileen Alethea Meagher (1910-1987) medal winning track athlete is
Canada's Outstanding Woman Athlete and Canadian Athlete of the year.
Sources: Herstory: A Canadian Women’s calendar 2012. Coteau
Books, 2011. ; Who’s
Winter 1935 - The Preston Rivulettes defeat the Winnipeg Eaton's Ladies in the Dominion Ladies Hockey Championships. Source "Queens of the Ice Lanes: the Preston Rivulettes and women's hockey in Canada 1931-1940 " by Carly Adams in Sport History Review 2008 Vol. 39 pages 1-29.
1935 - Helen Alice Kinnear (1894-1970) is the 1st woman lawyer in Canada to appear as counsel before the Supreme Court in Canada.
1935 - The Canadian Bowling Association, out of Toronto, creates a Ladies Section. Source: 5-pin Bowling History cvnet.net/burnstd (Accessed May 2005)
1935 - Lucy Maud Montgomery (1874-1942) is named an Officer in the Order of the British Empire.
1935 - Alice Wilson (1881-1964), Canada's 1st woman geologist is appointed as a member of the Order of the British Empire. Source:100 Canadian Heroines: famous and forgotten faces by Merna Forester. Toronto : Dundurn Press, 2004.
1935 - Helen Frances Okuloski (1912-1993) sets up her law practice as one of the1st women lawyers in Hamilton, Ontario Source: Diversifying the bar: Lawyers Make history. Law Society of Upper Canada Online
1935 - Alex Gibb (1891-1958) is the only woman on the Ontario Athletic Commission. Sources: “Queen of the Ice Lanes: the Preston Rivulettes and Women’s Hockey in Canada 1931-1940” by Carly Adams in Sport History Review no. 39 pages 1-29 2008; 100 more Canadian Heroines by Merna Forster Dundurn Press, 2011.
1935 - The western Shield Championship for women's hockey is established. It is the longest running women's hockey tournament. Source: www.femalehockey.ca accessed January 2013.
1935 - Born Verna Jane Kirkness (1935- ) well known educator known as Longhouse Lady.
1934 - Born Carolyn Spellman Fedy (1934 - ) competitive figure skater and administrator
1935 - Born Verna Irene States Thomas (1935-2005) social activist and volunteer
1935 - Born Doreen Curtis Wicks (1935-2004) Social activist and holder of the Order of Canada.
January 14, 1935 - Born Lucille Wheeler Canada's first ever Canadian Olympic Ski medalist in 1956.
January 27, 1935 - Born Christine McCall (1935-2005) journalist, author and biographer of Pierre Elliot Trudeau.
January 29, 1935 - Died Genevieve Elsie Alice Lipsett-Skinner (1886-1935) 1st woman journalist in Canadian Press Gallery.
March 10, 1935 - Born Suzanne "Suzy" Rochon Burnette (1935-2006) journalist and radio broadcaster.
March 15, 1935 - Born Mary Pratt, her paintings look so real you think they are photographs!
April 2, 1935 - Born Sharon Acker, actress.
April 22, 1935 - Born Rita Margaret Johnston, politician and the first woman to serve as a provincial premier in Canada.
May 28, 1935 - Born Frances "Fran" Anne Wigston Eberhard (1935 - ) sports administrator who also played basketball and volleyball.
June 2, 1935 - Born Carol Shields (1935-2003) award winning author.
June 6, 1935 - Born Joy Kogawa, author of children's books, poetry and essays and social activist.
July 29, 1935 - Born Patricia Lowther (1935-1975) respected poet, the Patricia Lowther Award now honours the best Canadian Poets.
September 5, 1935 - Born Valerie Tyron (1935- ) internationally acclaimed pianist.
September 21, 1935 - Born Shirley Marguerite Campbell (1935- ) champion long distance swimmer.
September 28, 1935 - Born Tove Bording (1935-2014) civil servant, foreign Service Officer for Canada.
September 31, 1935 - Born Shirley Marguerite Campbell (1935- ) amateur and profession medal winning swimmer
October 10, 1935 - Born Marge Linden (1935-3013) 1st woman all night disc jockey, Montreal Radio & 1st to appear in regular TV programs
November 17, 1935 - Born Audrey Thomas (1935- ) novelist and journalist.
December 22, 1935 - Born Marilyn Levine (1935-2005) artist and sculptor.
February 9, 1935 - Died Margaret Ross (1845-1935) biographer
March 31, 1935 - Died Emma Lorne Duff ( ?-1935) teacher and author.
April 23, 1935 - Died Georgina Ann Stirling (18661935) opera singer.
May 8, 1935 - Died Susie Frances Harrison (1858-1935) she used the pen name Seranus and wrote novels and poetry.
September 5, 1935 - Died Eliza Ritchie, (1856-1935) probably the first Canadian woman to receive her doctor of letters.
November 25, 1935 - Died Gwethalyn Graham. (1913-1935) award winning author.
December 26, 1935 - Died Ida Virginia Barclay (1877-1935) businesswoman and owned of ski resort, one of the first to offer ski trails.
|1936||1936 - Barbara Hanley
the 1st woman elected to the position
of a mayor of a town in Canada, Webwood, Ontario.
March 1936 - sports journalist Alexandrina Gibb labels women's hockey contests as battles between players who demonstrate an aggressive form of hockey and that players were as good as the men's teams in scraps on the ice. Source: "Queens of the Ice Lanes: the Preston Rivulettes and woman's Hockey in Canada, 1931-1940" by Carly Adams in Sport History Review vol. 30 pages 1-29 2008.
1936 - Nellie McClung (1873-1951) is appointed as the only woman to the Board of Governors of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). She served on the board until 1942.
1936 - Aileen Meagher (1910-1987) wins silver and bronze medals on the track in the Berlin Olympics. Sources: Herstory: A Canadian Women’s calendar 2012. Coteau Books, 2011. ; Who’s
August 23, 1936 - Francoise Aubut-Pratte (1922-1984) gives her 1st recital at St-Stanislas Church, Montreal , Quebec.
September 14, 1936 - Dorthea Palmer (1908-1992) a nurse is arrested for the distribution of birth control information.
She is eventually acquitted in 1937 at trial which makes distribution of this information legal. Source: Today in Canadian History, written, compiled, edited and produced by Ottawa Researchers.
November 4, 1936 - Lydia E. Gruchy (1895- ) is the 1st woman to be ordained as a minister in the United Church of Canada. Earlier in the year the Church declared women may be ordained. Source: Peter J. Calhoun, The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan Online (Accessed July 2014)
1936 - Margaret Paton Hyndman (1901? -1991) is the 1st Toronto woman to be appointed King's Council and the 2nd woman in the British Empire to be appointed to this position. Sources: Toronto Business and Professional Club, website accessed March 1913. ; Margaret Hyndman, lawyer: no warm welcome 50 years ago, Ottawa Citizen June 13, 1976.
Winter 1936 -
the Dominion Women's
Amateur Hockey Association did not host n annual even because
the cost of travels for the team to play was too difficult to raise.
The Preston Rivulettes defaulted against the Winnipeg Olympics .
Source "Queens of the Ice Lanes: the
Preston Rivulettes and women's hockey in Canada 1931-1940 " by Carly
Adams in Sport History Review 2008 Vol. 39 pages 1-29.
1936 - Girl Guide Cookies
are now sold across Canada.
March 17, 1937 -
Dorothea Palmer (1908-1992) is
acquitted at her trial for distributing information on birth control
in Eastview (now Vanier), Ontario, on the grounds that her actions
were entirely in the interest of the public good. It is a major
victory for Canadian women's autonomy.
May 12, 1937 - The coronation of King George Vl takes place at Westminster Abbey in London, England.
June 1-2, 1937 - The Crown launched an appeal with the Court of Appeal for Ontario in the Dorothea Palmer (1908-1992) case, Rex vs. Palmer, commonly known as The Eastview Birth Control Trial. The appeal is dismissed.
September 1, 1937 - Trans Canada Air Lines begins regular flights.
Winter 1937 - The Preston Rivulettes defeat the Winnipeg Eaton's at the Dominion Ladies Hockey Championships. tSource "Queens of the Ice Lanes: the Preston Rivulettes and women's hockey in Canada 1931-1940 " by Carly Adams in Sport History Review 2008 Vol. 39 pages 1-29.
1937 - Alice Evelyn Wilson (1881-1964) is the first woman elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.
1937 - Elsie MacGill (1905-1980.) is the first woman to be admitted corporate membership in the Engineering Institute of Canada.
1937 - Léa Roback (1903-2000) leads 5000 garment industry workers in Montreal on a massive strike that lasted 25 days. They were protesting 60 hour work weeks, poverty level wages and miserable working conditions. Source: 100 Canadian Heroines : famous and forgotten faces by Merna Forester. Toronto : Dundurn Press, 2004 Pg. 205.
1937 - Synchronized swimming is introduced in Canada at the Peterborough YWCA. Source: History of the YWCA http://www.ywcacanada.ca/ (accessed January 12, 2005)
1937 - Dorothea Palmer is acquitted on charges of unlawfully advertising birth control methods. The trial is a landmark in the ongoing fight by women to control their reproductive capacity. The criminal law with respect to birth control information and advertising was not changed until 1969. Source : Cool Chronology at www.coolwomen.org (accessed July 2005)
1937 - Plan International is founded as a Foster Parents Plan, a global movement for change, mobilizing millions of people around the world to support social justice for children in developing countries. Source: Herstory 2012: The Canadian Women's Calendar 2012. Saskatoon Women's Calendar Collective.
1937 - Kraft Diner is introduced to the world. Source : Canuck Chicks and Maple Leaf Mamas : women of the Great White North by Ann Douglas Toronto, McArthur and Co., 2002. pg 17.
1937 - The invention of the blender is introduced to the North American market. Source : Canuck Chicks and Maple Leaf Mamas : women of the Great White North by Ann Douglas Toronto, McArthur and Co., 2002.
1937 - Born Jane Millgate (1937 - ) author and academic
1937 - Born Zanana L Akande (1937- ) Member of Ontario Parliament.
1937 - Born Julie Loranger (1937- ), diplomat
1937 - Born Aiko Geraldine Suzuki (1937-2005) a sculptor, painter, printmaker, dance set designer, curator and teacher,.
1937 - Born Jan Tennant broadcast journalist, 1st woman to host the National news on CBC TV.
1937 - Born Dorothy Thomas (1938-2005) feminist and community social activist.
February 4, 1937 - Born Audrey Yvonne Morris (1937-2010) award winning composer.
February 4, 1937 - Born Ann Southam (1937-2010) composer
February 7, 1937 - Born Maria van der Merwe (1937- ) coach of Field Hockey.
March 31, 1937 - Born Anna Mariana Terana (1937- ) politician
June 8, 1937 - - Born Cathy Townsend, the first Canadian woman to win the Bowling Cup and member of the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame.
June 11, 1937 - Born Alice Katrina Loewen Chambers (1937-1999 Scientist and community activist for the environment.
June 15, 1937 - Born Lola Lemire Tostevin, bilingual author and poet.
June 18, 1937 - Born Rose-Marie Losier-Cool, Member of the Canadian Senate.
August 9, 1938 - Born Micheline Saint-Marcoux (19381985) muscien & composer.
September 8, 1937 - Born Barbara Frum, (1937-1992) Award winning multi media journalist.
September 15, 1937 - Born Marjorie Harris, (1937- ) renowned author and gardening enthusiast, she is the expert of her era.
September 21, 1937 - Born Betty Stanhope-Cole (1937- ) champion golfer.
October 6, 1937 - Born Judith 'Judy' Kathleen Darling-Evans (1937- ) champion golfer
December 23, 1937 - Born Geills MacCrae Kilgour Turner ( 1937 - ) wife of Prime Minister John N. Turner (1929- )
1937 - Died Annie Glenn Broder ( -1937), composer and music teacher
February 1, 1937 - Died Susan Louise Moir Allison (1845-1937) pioneer and author, British Columbia, in 2010 became National Historic Person.
February 2, 1937 - Died Eudora Lochead ( -1937) Pioneer store owner on the West coast.
March 30, 1937 - Died Maria Heathfield Pollard-Grant (1854-1937) social activist, suffragist, and school trustee.
August 1, 1937 - Died Constance Woodrow (1899-1937) author.
November 18, 1937 - Died Julia Willmothe Henshaw (1868-1937) botanist, journalist, novelist.
Winter 1938 - The Preston Rivulettes defeat the Winnipeg Olympics in
the Dominion Women's Hockey Championships. The
Rivulettes also earn the Fanny Rosenfeld and Romeo Daoust this
year. Source "Queens of the Ice Lanes: the
Preston Rivulettes and women's hockey in Canada 1931-1940 " by Carly
Adams in Sport History Review 2008 Vol. 39 pages 1-29.
1938 - Elinor Francis Elizabeth Black (1905-1982) is the 1st Canadian woman member of the British Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Sources: Dictionary of Manitoba Biography by J. M. Bumsted University of Manitoba Press, 1999: Memorable Manitobans Profile by Gordon Goldsborough. Online (accessed December 2011) :; Government of Manitoba. Status of Women. Women
1938 - The DuPont company introduces Teflon non stick coating for cooking pots and pans. Source : Canuck Chicks and Maple Leaf Mamas : women of the Great White North by Ann Douglas Toronto, McArthur and Co., 2002. pg 16
January 9, 1938 - Born Claudette Boyer (1938- ) First Franco-Ontarian women to be elected to the federal government, 1999.
February 17, 1938 - Born Martha Henry, leading stage and film actress.
March 19, 1938 - Born Susan Butt (1938- ) Canadian Tennis champion
March 31, 1938 - Born Beverley Simons, playwright,
May 5, 1938 - Born Barbara Wagner with skating partner Robert Wagner were international medal winning pair skaters & members of the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame.
June 10, 1938 - Born Ernestine Russell Weaver (1938- ) Champion gymnast.
June 28, 1938 - Born Shelagh Dawn Grant, author and historian.
August 9, 1938 - Born Micheline Saint-Marcoux (1938-1985) composer and teacher.
August 16, 1938 - Born Dorothy Lidstone, world champion archer.
September 1938 - Born Eliza Olson (1938- ) award winning environmentalist
November 10, 1938 - Vera Frenkel (1938- ) renowned artist in multi and modern electronic media.
December 28, 1938 - Born Helen Hunt (1938- ) Olympic swimmer.
1938 - Died Mary Ella Dignam (1857-1938) feminist, artist, founder of the Women's Art Association of Canada.
1938 - Died Marie McIntyre (1900-1938) the first Ukrainian woman to become a pharmacist.
1938 - Died Elizabeth Ferguson McKellop (1858-1938) pioneer of Canadian northwest.
January 12, 1938 - Died Annie Charlotte Dalton (1865-1938) a poet who was inducted into the Order of the British Empire.
February 12, 1938 - Died Amy Parkinson (1859?-1938) poet.
June 6, 1938 - Died Georgina Fane Pope (1862-1938) The Florence Nightingale of Prince Edward Island and first Matron of the Canadian Army Medical Corp.
October 22, 1938 - Died May Irwin, (1862-1938.) Stage performer and star of pioneering one minute movie by Thomas Edison.
November 17, 1938 - Died Jean Newton McIlwraith (1959-1938) author.
December 15, 1938 - Died Marjory Willison Lady Willison was an Author.
Some 5000 nurses serve in the Canadian Army, Navy and Air Force
Medical Corps during World War ll. The serve overseas in hospitals,
casualty stations near combat zoned, mobile field hospitals and in
many theatres of war. However they are not permitted to serve in
warships, combat aircraft or combat arms units.
Source: National Defence and the
Canadian Armed Forces, Fact sheet. Online (Accessed March
April 22, 1939 - Marion Orr, one
of Canada's women pioneer pilots, takes her 1st
flying lesson. She receives her private Pilot's license in January
The 1st Canadian Elizabeth Fry Society was
established in Vancouver.
1939 - Elsie Gregory MacGill (1905-1980) is the first woman to design and witness the construction of an airplane based on these designs. Source: Canadian Chronology Http://tdi.uregina.ca/~maguirec/chron.html (accessed April 28, 2003)
There are an estimated 638,000 women in the paid work force in